Pathology and Pathogenesis of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

Last updated: Wednesday, April 3, 2013 - Save & Share - One Comment

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an enlarged prostate gland. As the prostate enlarges, it can squeeze down on the urethra. BPH occurs in almost all men as they age. BPH is not cancer. An enlarged prostate can be a nuisance. But it is usually not a serious problem.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia is probably a normal part of the aging process in men, caused by changes in hormone balance and in cell growth.

Risk factors for developing BPH include:

Symptoms include the following.

Pathology and Pathogenesis of BPH

With increasing age, the prostate gland undergoes benign enlargement first around the prostatic urethra and later extends to involve the central zone. The weight of prostate gland in BPH is usually two to three times that of normal. Grossly, nodular enlargements are seen in the prostate gland usually with cystic spaces due to dilatation of the obstructed prostatic ducts.

Histologically, hyperplasia of both glandular and fibromuscular components are seen in BPH. It is also important to note that with advancing age, carcinoma of the prostate gland is also likely to occur and this commonly arise from the peripheral zone. Both conditions present with symptoms of bladder outlet obstruction and can sometimes coexist.

The pathogenesis of BPH is still largely unresolved. Several theories have been postulated to explain it s development. These include:

  1. Hormonal mechanism, an increase in the level of dihydro testosterone (DHT) in the cells leads to stimulation of cell growth. DHT is derived from testosterone by the enzymatic action of 5 alpha reeducates
  2. Stem cell theory, by reactivation of the stem cells and benign enlargement of the prostatic gland
  3. Stroma-epithelial interaction by growth factor which stimulates cell proliferation.

Both mechanical enlargement of the prostate gland as well as an increase in the tone of the prostatic urethra causes bladder outlet obstruction in BPH. The tone of the prostatic urethra is regulated by smooth muscle which is innervated buy the alpha adrenergic nerve fibres which are abundant in the prostate gland as well as in t he bladder neck.

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One Response to “Pathology and Pathogenesis of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)”

Comment from рейсы из ташкента в алмату
Time May 2, 2013 at 8:53 pm

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