Anemia is a decrease in number of red blood cells (RBCs) or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood. For men, anemia is typically defined as hemoglobin level of less than 13.5 gram/100 ml and in women as hemoglobin of less than 12.0 gram/100 ml.
Anemia is caused essentially through two basic pathways. Anemia is caused by either:
- a decrease in production of red blood cells or hemoglobin, or
- an increase in loss or destruction of red blood cells.
Other types of anemia include:
- Anemia due to B12 deficiency
- Anemia due to folate deficiency
- Anemia due to iron deficiency
- Anemia of chronic disease
- Hemolytic anemia
- Idiopathic aplastic anemia
- Megaloblastic anemia
- Pernicious anemia
- Sickle cell anemia
Symptoms of anemia may include the following : fatigue, decreased energy, weakness, shortness of breath, lightheadedness, palpitations (feeling of the heart racing or beating irregularly) and looking pale.
Symptoms of severe anemia may include : chest pain, angina, or heart attack, dizziness, fainting or passing out and rapid heart rate.
Anemia is typically diagnosed on a complete blood count. Apart from reporting the number of red blood cells and the hemoglobin level, the automatic counters also measure the size of the red blood cells by flow cytometry, which is an important tool in distinguishing between the causes of anemia. Examination of a stained blood smear using a microscope can also be helpful, and it is sometimes a necessity in regions of the world where automated analysis is less accessible.
Nursing Diagnosis for Anema : Risk for Infection related to decreased immunity, invasive procedures
- There are no risk factors for infection
- free of symptoms of infection,
- normal leukocyte numbers (4-11000)
- vital signs within normal limits.
Control of infection:
- Clean up the environment after use for other patients.
- Limit visitor when necessary and recommended for adequate rest.
- Instruct patient’s family to wash their hands before and after contact with the client.
- Use anti-microbe soap for hand washing.
- Make hand washing before and after nursing actions.
- Use clothes and gloves as a protective device.
- Maintain aseptic environment during the installation of equipment.
- Perform wound care, and dresing infusion, catheter every day if any.
- Increase intake of nutrients, and adequate fluid.
- Give antibiotics according to the program.
Protection of infection:
- Monitor signs and symptoms of systemic and local infections.
- Monitor granulocytes and WBC count.
- Monitor susceptibility to infection.
- Maintain aseptic technique for each action.
- Inspection of the skin and mucous mebran redness, heat.
- Monitor changes in energy levels.
- Encourage clients to improve mobility and exercise.
- Instruct the client to take antibiotics according to the program.
- Teach family / client about the signs and symptoms of infection and report suspected infection.